ginger

{{ "HTML Templates For Humans" }}

Statements

All statements use {% %} delimiters. The {%- and -%} variations remove all whitespace (including line breaks) to the left and right respectively.

if

The {% if %} statement evaluates an expression and branches based on its truthiness.

Simple form:

{% if condition %}
True branch body
{% endif %}

With else branch:

{% if condition %}
True branch body
{% else %}
False branch body
{% endif %}

With else-if branches:

{% if condition1 %}
True branch body
{% elif condition2 %}
Other branch body
{% else %}
False branch body
{% endif %}

switch

For branching into multiple branches based on one expression, use {% switch %}:

{% switch expression %}
  {% case value1 %}
    Value 1 body
  {% endcase %}
  {% case value2 %}
    Value 2 body
  {% endcase %}
  {% default %}
    Default body
  {% enddefault %}
{% endswitch %}

set

{% set varname = expression %} defines a variable and sets it to the value of the expression.

include

{% include "filename" %} reads a file and injects it into the template exactly where the include is written.

scope

{% scope %}...{% endscope %} creates an explicit local scope:

  • variables defined inside the scope disappear when the scope is left
  • variables defined outside the scope are available inside it
  • variables defined outside the scope and again inside it will take on the value from inside the scope while inside, but revert to the value from outside after leaving the scope

indent

{% indent %}...{% endindent %} creates an indentation scope using the default indent (two spaces)

{% indent expr %}...{% endindent %} interprets expr as an indent and creates a matching indentation scope.

Indentation blocks can be nested.

Existing indentation in the template source is removed inside {% indent %} blocks, based on the indentation of the first line after the opening {% indent %} tag. After that first line, all subsequent lines that begin with the same indent will have it stripped, while any additional whitespace will be kept, as will whitespace sequences that differ from the first line.

After that, indentation blocks add one level of indentation, except for the outermost one, which serves just to establish the indentation context in the first place.

Indentation blocks cover all line endings in the output, regardless of whether they come from literal output (bare text), interpolations, macro invocations, or includes.

Indentation level is determined from the runtime context, so if you put an indentation block inside a macro and call it from another indentation block, the two will nest as if you had written the macro body directly into the calling context. This means that the following:

{%- macro foobar %}
{% indent '' %}
<div>
{% indent '  ' %}
<h1>Hello!</h1>
{% endindent %}
</div>
{% endindent %}
{% endmacro -%}


{% indent %}
<body>
{{ foobar() }}
</body>
{% endindent }

...will render as:

<body>
  <div>
    <h1>Hello!</h1>
  </div>
</body>

Thus, {% indent %} allows authors to write reusable template code that produces correct indentation.

macro

{% macro name(arg0,...) %}...{% endmacro %} defines a macro named name. Once defined, the macro can be called like a function or filter. Alternatively, macros can be called using the {% call %} construct, see below.

call

{% call (arg0) name(arg1) %}body{% endcall %} calls the macro named name with argument arg1; inside the macro's body, a special function named caller is available that takes an argument which will then be passed back into the body of the call statement. If this makes your brain hurt, read the example in our simulation tests, reproduced here for convenience:

Template:

{% macro foobar3(a) -%}
  {{ a }}({{ caller("asdf") }})
{%- endmacro -%}

{%- call (a) foobar3("hey") -%}
<{{a}}>
{%- endcall %}

Output:

hey(<asdf>)

extends

block

These two together implement template inheritance. Here's how it works:

  • First, you write a parent template, which is really just a regular template. However, some parts of it are enclosed in {% block blockname %} ... {% endblock %}
  • Then you write a child template, which starts with an {% include 'parent-template-name' %} statement, followed by zero or more blocks. These blocks override the content of the blocks of the same name in the parent template.
  • Blocks can be nested; in that case, the child template can choose to override the outer block (thereby removing the inner block entirely), or override the inner block (leaving the rest of the containing block unchanged).
  • Blocks that are not overridden, as well as content outside of any blocks, is copied from the parent template.

try

catch

finally

Exception handling. These work similar to exception handling constructs in other languages. Example:

{% try %}
  <div>
  {# This block gets executed unconditionally, until an exception is thrown. #}
  {{ something_that_may_fail() }}
{% catch 'ArgumentsError' as exception %}
  {# This block fires when the 'try' block throws an exception of type
     'ArgumentsError'. #}
  <p class="warning">Invalid arguments.</p>
{% catch * as exception %}
  {# This block fires on any other exception. #}
  <p class="error">Something went wrong.</p>
{% finally %}
  </div>
{% endtry %}

The way error handling flow works is as follows:

  • A try/catch/finally block is enclosed in {% try %}...{% endtry %}.
  • Everything up to the first {% catch %} or {% finally %} is executed, until an exception is thrown.
  • Upon throwing an exception, ginger proceeds to checking the available catch blocks, in the order in which they are written in the source file.
  • As soon as one of the catch blocks matches, ginger enters it, runs it, and skips the remaining catch blocks after it.
  • If none of the catch blocks match, the exception is kept alive and gets re-thrown at the end of the try construct.
  • At this point, four possible situations can exist: a) no exception has occurred; b) an exception has occurred and has been caught; c) an exception has occurred and hasn't been caught; d) an exception has been caught, but a new exception has been thrown while handling the original one. In all four cases, ginger will first execute the finally block; after that, it will "bubble" any remaining uncaught exceptions (cases c and d), or return without error (cases a and b).

catch Statements

The catch statement header comes in multiple flavors. The most complete one is:

{% catch what as name %}

Where:

  • what is either the special token * to catch any exception, or a string literal that must match the exception type.
  • name is a valid identifier name; the caught exception will be bound to that name for the duration of the catch block, which is useful if you want to inspect the exception further.

Both the what filter and the name are optional, however, if you want to bind to a name, you also need to provide a what (use * to catch everything). So the following forms are all valid:

{% catch %}
  {# anonymously catch any exception #}
{% catch * %}
  {# anonymously catch any exception #}
{% catch 'ArgumentsError' %}
  {# anonymously catch only ArgumentsErrors #}
{% catch * as bloop %}
  {# catch any exception, and bind it to 'bloop' #}
{% catch 'ArgumentsError' as bloop %}
  {# catch 'ArgumentsError' exception, and bind it to 'bloop' #}

Exception Objects

Exception objects are regular Ginger values; when used as a dictionary, they expose at least the following common properties:

  • what - A string containing the exact exception type. See below for a list of possible exception types.
  • message - A human-readable error message.

Exception Types

RuntimeError

A generic run-time error.

Properties:

  • what: Exception type
  • message: Human-readable error message

UndefinedBlockError

Thrown when a template attempts to explicitly call a block that hasn't been defined yet.

Properties:

  • what: Exception type
  • message: Human-readable error message
  • block: Name of the non-existent block

ArgumentsError

A function call has received arguments that do not match its accepted arguments.

Properties:

  • what: Exception type
  • message: Human-readable error message
  • function: The canonical name of the function that was called
  • explanation: Explanation how exactly the arguments failed to meet the function's expectations

EvalParseError

Thrown when code passed to eval dynamically contains a syntax error.

Properties:

  • what: Exception type
  • message: Human-readable error message
  • errorMessage: Error message from the Ginger parser
  • sourceFile: Source file name, if any. Typically not useful.
  • line: Line number of the parser error. This is relative to the evaluated string, not the source file the eval call was made from.
  • col: Column number of the parser error. Just like line, this refers to the evaluated string, not the originating source file.

NotAFunctionError

Thrown when trying to call a non-function as a function, or using a non-function as a filter.

Properties:

  • what: Exception type
  • message: Human-readable error message

script

The {% script %} statement introduces a Script Mode Block. Inside a script block, Ginger uses an alternate syntax that is more similar to an imperative programming language like C or JavaScript, and less similar to a regular template language. Most of the statements are still available, but the syntax is different: for example, {% for i in items %}{{ item }}{% endfor %} becomes for (i in items) { echo(item); }. For full details, see Script Mode.